Vedantic literature brings to bear that the cosmic manifestation revolves in four yugas or ages: the Golden, Silver, Bronze, and Iron Ages. In the Golden Age, the process of self-realization was long term; in the Silver Age, the process of self-realization was by sacrificial offerings; in the Bronze Age, the process of self-realization was by opulent worship; and in the present Iron Age, sonic therapeutic intervention is recommended as the means of spiritual reawakening. Out of the four ages, animal sacrifice, executed by expert priests, was prescribed only in the Silver Age, but proscribed completely in our present Iron Age, characterized by short life spans, quarrels, and hypocrisy.

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